It’s a good idea to look into inquiries from companies whose names you don’t recognize. While it’s possible they could be from companies you’ve done business with (if they report under a different company name, for example), they could also indicate fraud like identity theft, which we mentioned can bring down your credit scores. You’ll want to dispute any errors you discover as soon as you can to avoid further damage. Not sure where to start? You can learn more about disputing an error on your credit report by reading this primer.
When visitors sign up, they’re often enrolled, unwittingly, in a credit monitoring service that charges a monthly fee. In 2010, the Federal Trade Commission attempted to clamp down on this practice. It required “free” sites to provide a warning that, under federal law, the only authorized source for no-cost credit reports (though not free credit scores) is www.annualcreditreport.com.
Regardless of the reason for the less-than-stellar score, you’ll have a harder time finding a lender willing to service a loan, especially if the low credit score is a result of slow payments. You’ll represent a higher risk of default to a lender and may therefore be required to secure the loan with a down payment or with tangible personal property (otherwise known as “collateral”) before a loan offer will be extended.
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Anyone who denies you credit, housing, insurance, or a job because of a credit report must give you the name, address, and telephone number of the credit reporting agency (CRA) that provided the report. Under the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), you have the right to request a free report within 60 days if a company denies you credit based on the report.
Lenders are not required by law to report to credit bureaus but they typically do report to at least one bureau. This is why your credit reports might not be the same across all bureaus. Some lenders might report it to one bureau while others might report to all three – while others won’t report it at all. Check your credit score and credit report across all major bureaus to make sure that you have no errors being reported as that would be a much bigger issue than your credit reports in one bureau missing some information.
Your score is essentially a 3-digit summary of your credit health. A lender or credit card provider who looks at your credit score will be able to determine right away if you’re a borrower who can be trusted to pay back the money they lend you. Credit scores are calculated from the information in your credit report, a file containing all of your credit and financial activity over the months and years. Lenders will want to know you credit report and score to determine your ability to hold a loan.
You should also consider your level of comfort with sharing your financial account information. The UltraFICO is a positive use of such data, Wu said, but other potential applications could be worrying, such as debt collectors accessing this data. And last year’s Equifax data breach proves that consumers should be concerned with how credit reporting agencies collect, store and use personal data.
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In the eyes of lenders, employers, insurance agents, and a host of other people and entities, the state of your credit represents how responsible and even how ethical you are. For example, lenders look at your credit score to determine not only your ability, but your willingness to repay a loan. Insurance companies view an individual with a good credit score as someone who is trustworthy and less likely to commit insurance fraud. Even many employers run a credit check to determine if a candidate is likely to be a responsible employee. (However, it should be noted that employers only have access to a modified version of your credit report which omits some personal information including your account numbers and year of birth.)
“Consumers participating in this process have greater control and transparency over the financial information that is being shared with a credit grantor,” Shellenberger clarified when asked about privacy and security concerns. “The consumer has direct access to this data and therefore knows exactly what is being shared.” Finicity, Experian and FICO have also set up extensive information security measures and protections to keep users’ data safe, he added.
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Inquiries note when someone has obtained your credit information. There is nothing that indicates whether you were approved or rejected for credit at that time. Some inquiries can affect your credit scores, but not all of them do. Soft inquiries generally aren’t seen by anyone except the consumer and usually won’t affect your credit scores. Here are some examples.
A credit report includes information on where you live, how you pay your bills, and whether you’ve been sued or have filed for bankruptcy. Nationwide credit reporting companies sell the information in your report to creditors, insurers, employers, and other businesses that use it to evaluate your applications for credit, insurance, employment, or renting a home.